Morphometric Evidence for Three Juvenile Stages in Some Species of Xiphinema americanum sensu lato


  • J. M. Halbrendt
  • D. J. F. Brown


One to two hundred nematodes from each of seven Xiphinema americanum-group populations were measured to determine the range of stylet and body lengths for juveniles and adults. First-stage juveniles were identified by the position of the replacement odontostyle (i.e., the tip of the replacement odontostyle overlapped the base of the odontophore). Nematodes were identified as second stage if the functional odontostyle was the same length as the replacement odontostyle of the first stage. Subsequent stages were similarly identified by establishing the range of corresponding replacement and functional odontostyle lengths. In all populations examined, this procedure created natural divisions that clearly grouped nematodes by stylet and body length. Presumably these groups identified all juvenile and adult stages. Populations of X. americanum, X. rivesi, and X. californicum from the United States had three juvenile stages, but a population of X. pachtaicum from Bulgaria had four juvenile stages. Key words: juvenile, morphometrics, nematode, virus-vector, Xiphinema americanum, X. californicum, X. pachtaicum, X. rivesi.