Development of Meloidogyne arenaria on Peanut and Soybean under Two Temperature Cycles
AbstractFlorunner peanut and three soybean cultivars, Centennial, Gasoy 17, and Wright, were inoculated with 48-hour age cohorts of Meloidogyne arenari race 1 second-stage juveniles and placed in a growth chamber set to simulate early season (low temperature) and midseason (high temperature) conditions. Percentages of the initial inoculum penetrating roots 4 and 8 days after inoculation were 2-3 times higher in soybean cultivars than in peanut; 25% on susceptible soybean and 9% on peanut. Penetration and early development of M. arenaria were greater in the higher temperature environment. Penetration percentages were expressed as a function of cumulative degree-days by regression models. Development of M. arenaria 10, 20, and 30 days after inoculation was more rapid on peanut than on soybean. The resistant soybean cultivar Wright had slower development rates than did the other two soybean cultivars. Nematode growth and development were dependent on temperature. In greenhouse experiments, production of eggs by M. arenaria was more than 10 times greater on peanut than on susceptible soybean. The reproductive factor for Wright soybean was less than one, but plant growth parameters indicated that this cultivar was intolerant of M. arenavia. Key words: Arachis hypogaea, cropping system, development, epidemiology, Glycine max, host suitability, inoculum efficiency, latent period, Meloidogyne arenaria, nematode, peanut, penetration, reproduction, root-knot nematode, soybean.
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