Factors Affecting the Biology and Pathogenicity of Heterodera schachtii on Sugarbeet
AbstractA direct relationship exists between soil temperature and Heterodera schachtii development. The average developmental period of two nematode populations from Lewiston, Utah, and Rupert, Idaho, from J2 to J3, J4, adult, and the next generation J2 at soil temperatures of 18-28 C were 100, 140,225, and 399 degree-days (base 8 C), respectively. There was a positive relationship (P 0.05) between nematode Pi, nematode generations, and sugarbeet yields. The greatest sugarbeet growth inhibition (87%) occurred when sugarbeets were exposed to a Pi of 12 eggs/cm³ soil for five generations (1,995 degree-days), compared with a 47% inhibition when plants were exposed to the same Pi for two generations. There was a negative correlation (P 0.05) between the Pi, Pf, and sugarbeet yield for each population threshold. The smaller the Pi, the greater the sugarbeet yields and the greater the Pf. Root yields were 80 and 29 t /ha and Pf were 8.4 and 3.6 eggs/cm³ soil when sugarbeet seeds were planted at Pi of 0.4 and 7.9 eggs/cm³. respectively, at a soil temperature of 8 C. The number of years rotation with a nonhost crop required to reduce the nematode population density below a damage threshold level of 2 eggs/cm³ depends on the Pi. A Pi of 33.8 eggs/cm³ soil required a 5-year crop rotation, whereas a Pi of 8.4 eggs/cm³ soil required a 2-year crop rotation. Key words: basal thermal temperature, Beta vulgaris, damage threshold population, degree-day, final population density, Heterodera schachtii, initial population density, nematode generation, reproduction, soil temperature, sugarbeet cyst nematode, yield.
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