Effective Use of Marine Algal Products in the Management of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes
AbstractAlgal extracts were ineffective against Meloidogyne spp., Panagrellus redivivus, and Neoaplectana carpocapsae at 1.0% aqueous concentrations, with the exception of Spatoglossum schroederi. S. schroederi killed Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, M. acrita, and Hoplolaimus galeatus at concentrations of 1.0, 0.75, and 0.50%. Extracts from S. schroederi at a concentration of 1.0% were ineffective against Hirschmanniella caudacrena and Belonolaimus longicaudatus. Spatoglossum schroederi, Botryocladia occidentalis, and Bryothamnion triquestrum when used as soil amendments at 0.5-1.0% concentrations (by weight) produced significant reduction of root gall development in tomato plants infected with M. incognita. Tomato plant growth was significantly improved by these algae, as well as by Caulerpa prolifera. Soil amendments of S. schroederi at concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0% significantly reduced root galling of tomato infected with M. incognita, M. arenaria, and M. javanica. Tomatoes grown in algal-soil mixture produced significantly heavier shoots and roots than plants raised in autoclaved soil. No significant differences in root-knot indices, nor in fresh and dry weights of tomato, were noted between the two concentrations of algal-soil mixture. Key words: marine algae, Meloidogyne spp., Spatoglossum schroederi, algal-soil amendments.
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