A Classification of Tylenchulus semipenetrans Biotypes

  • R. N. Inserra
  • N. Vovlas
  • J. H. O'Bannon


The presence of two biotypes of the citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) in Italian citrus and olive orchards has been confirmed by comparing host specificity. Host reaction to California biotypes C1 and C3 and to three populations from Arizona, Texas, and Florida indicates that of these five United States biotypes, all except C3 consistently fit biotype C1. These findings, and the results of host-range studies in other countries, show that four biotypes of T. semipenetrans are distributed worldwide: the "Poncirus biotype," the "Citrus biotype," the "Mediterranean biotype," and the "Grass biotype." Key Words: citrus-root nematode, host specificity, olive tree, Citrus spp., Poncirus trifoliata.