Biocontrol: Bacillus penetrans and Related Parasites of Nematodes

  • R. M. Sayre


Bacillus penetrans Mankau, 1975, previously described as Duboscqia penetrans Thorne 1940, is a candidate agent for biocontrol of nematodes. This review considers the life stages of this bacterium: vegetative growth phase, colony fragmentation, sporogenesis, soil phase, spore attachment, and penetration into larvae of root-knot nematodes. The morphology of the microthallus colonies and the unusual external features of the spore are discussed. Taxonomic affinities with the actinomycetes, particularly with the genus Pasteuria, are considered. Also discussed are other soil bacterial species that are potential biocontrol agents. Products of their bacterial fermentation in soil are toxic to nematodes, making them effective biocontrol agents. Key Words: Duboscqia, Pasteuria ramosa, Pseudomonas denitrificans, Clostridium butyricum, DesulJovibrio desulJuricans, Bacillus thuringiensis, rickettsia.