Effects of Aldicarb and Its Sulfoxide and Sulfone on the Biology of Tylenchulus semipenetrans
AbstractIn laboratory testing, egg hatch of Tylenchulus semipenetrans was stimulated at concentrations of 1 and 10 [mu]g/ml aldicarb solution and inhibited at 50 and 100 [mu]g/ml. Aldicarb was more inhibitory to egg hatch than the aldicarb sulfoxide and the aldicarb sulfone. Inhibition of hatch at the high concentration was associated with delays in the molting processes, lack of larval movement within the egg, and delays in embryonic development. Nematode motility was reduced at 10, 50, and 100 [mu]g/ml of aldicarb and aldicarb sulfoxide solution, and at 50 and 100 [mu]g/ml aldicarb sulfone. Male development was retarded at 10 [mu]g/nrl and almost completely inhibited at 50 and 100 [mu]g/ml of the three chemicals. In greenhouse tests, female development antl reproduction on roots of citrus seedlings were suppressed by aldicarb at rates of 2.6 [mu]g/ml and completely inhibited at 10.6 [mu]g/ml of soil solution during a 50-day experimental period. Under field conditions, there was little systemic movement of aldicarb into roots located outside treated areas. Aldicarb reduced the nematode larvae and the female adult population in the second year after the second treatment. There were no differences in egg hatch and sex ratio of citrus nematodes between treated and nontreated roots. Key Words: citrus nematode, hatching, development, reproduction, chemical control, nonfumigant nematicide, motility, mortality, mode of action.
Copyright and Permissions
All material published by the Society of Nematologists (SON), except for papers prepared by United States and Canadian government employees, is copyrighted and protected under the U.S. copyright law. Under the Copyright Act of 1976, the term of copyright for materials registered by an organization is 75 years from the date first published. Before publishing any manuscript, SON requires that authors transfer full and complete ownership of any copyright to SON by signing a JON Page Charge/Copyright Form (.pdf). SON then registers the copyright. Subsequent use of published materials requires written permission from the SON and may be obtained by contacting the current Editor-in-Chief and state where and how the material will be used.
The author warrants that the article is an original work not published elsewhere in whole or in part, except in abstract form, and that the author has full power to make this grant. If portions of the article have been published previously, then the author warrants that permission has been obtained from the copyright holder and the author will submit a copy of the permission release with this copyright transfer form.
SON shall claim no proprietary right other than copyright. Authors and coauthors retain the right to revise, adapt, modify, or otherwise use all or part of the article in future works of the author(s), such as press releases, lectures, and reviews, provided that all such use is for the personal noncommercial benefit of the author(s). All patent rights are retained by the author(s).