Effects of Management Practices on Nematode and Fungi Populations and Okra Yield
AbstractOkra was grown in field plots of Tifton loamy sand naturally infested with the nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and Criconemoides ornalus and the pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, F. roseum, and Pythium spp. Plots were treated with various soil pesticides and left exposed or covered with biodegradable paper film mulch under trickle irrigation. Soil was assayed for nematodes and fungi, and plant roots were examined for root-rot and insect damage. Fewer nematodes and fungi generally were recovered from soil treated with DD-MENCS (with and without film mulch) or methyl bromide-chloropicrin (2:1) (MBC) and film mulch than from nontreated soil. Funfigation with DD-MENCS or MBC suppressed populations of M. incognita, C. ornatus, F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. roseum, and Pythium spp. Ethoprop (alone or combined with other pesticides), sodium azide, and chloroneb were less effective than DD-MENCS and MBC. Plant growth anti yield were greatest when nematodes and pathogenic fungi were controlled. Yield was increased 3-fold by DD-MENCS + film mulch or MBC + film mulch in comparison with the average yield of okra produced in Georgia. The root-knot nematode-Fusarium wilt complex was most severe in nonfuntigated soil. Key Words: Abelmoschus esculentus, multiple-pest control.
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