Effects of Oxamyl on the Citrus Nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans, and on Infection of Sweet Orange
AbstractFoliar sprays of 4 [mu]g/ml oxamyl on sweet orange trees in a greenhouse slightly depressed the number of Tylenchulus semipenetrans larvae obtained from roots and soil, but similar treatments were not effective in two orchards. Soil drench treatments decreased the number of citrus nematode larvae obtained from roots or soil of citrus plants grown itt a greenhouse and in orchards. Exposure to 5-10 [mu]g/ml of oxamyl in water was lethal to only a few second-stage larvae treated 10 days, and many second-stage larvae in 2.0 [mu]g/ml oxamyl recovered motility when transferred to fresh water. Aqueous solutions of 50 and 100 [mu]g/ml of oxamyl were toxic to citrus nematode larvae. Additional observations indicate that oxamyl interfered with hatch of citrus nematode larvae and was nematistatic and/or protected sweet orange roots from infection. Oxamyl degraded at different rates in two soils. The number of citrus nematode larvae that infected and developed on sweet orange roots was increased by an undetermined product of the degradation of oxamyl in soil, water, and possibly within plants. This product apparently was translocated in roots. Key Words: Oxamyl, nematistatic, larval-hatch, degradation, citrus nematode.
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