Fine Structure of Cephalic Sense Organs in Heterodera glycines Males
AbstractCephalic sense organs of Heterodera glycines males were examined in detail by electron microscopy. Each amphid basically consists of an amphidial gland, a nerve bundle, and an amphidial duct. The amphidial gland consists of a microvillous region, and laterally is closely associated with a large secretory cell. The nerve bundle penetrates the microvillous region, and further anteriorly individual nerve processes (dendrites) separate from one another, thus forming a sensilla pouch which is enveloped by the microvillous region of the gland. Anterior to the pouch, the cilia-like dendrites converge as they enter and eventually terminate in the amphidial duct. Heterodera glvcines males have the innervation basis for a full complement of sixteen papillae, although surface manifestations are present for only six minute inner labial papillae. In addition, four outer labial and four cephalic receptors terminate beneath the surface, and another two dendrite pairs end further posteriorly beneath the basal plate of the cephalic framework. Papillary receptors which terminate beneath the surface are probably mechanoreceptive, whereas inner labial papillae have pore-like openings to the exterior and may be chemoreceptive. Amphids and papillae of H. glycines are fundamentally similar to those of Meloidogyne incognita, although certain striking differences exist. Key Words: amphid, papillae, ultrastructure, cilium, cyst nematode.
Copyright and Permissions
All material published by the Society of Nematologists (SON), except for papers prepared by United States and Canadian government employees, is copyrighted and protected under the U.S. copyright law. Under the Copyright Act of 1976, the term of copyright for materials registered by an organization is 75 years from the date first published. Before publishing any manuscript, SON requires that authors transfer full and complete ownership of any copyright to SON by signing a JON Page Charge/Copyright Form (.pdf). SON then registers the copyright. Subsequent use of published materials requires written permission from the SON and may be obtained by contacting the current Editor-in-Chief and state where and how the material will be used.
The author warrants that the article is an original work not published elsewhere in whole or in part, except in abstract form, and that the author has full power to make this grant. If portions of the article have been published previously, then the author warrants that permission has been obtained from the copyright holder and the author will submit a copy of the permission release with this copyright transfer form.
SON shall claim no proprietary right other than copyright. Authors and coauthors retain the right to revise, adapt, modify, or otherwise use all or part of the article in future works of the author(s), such as press releases, lectures, and reviews, provided that all such use is for the personal noncommercial benefit of the author(s). All patent rights are retained by the author(s).