IMPACTS OF BARRIER INSECTICIDE MIXTURES ON MOSQUITO, AEDES AEGYPTI AND NON-TARGET HONEY BEE, APIS MELLIFERA

Authors

  • Whitney Qualls Anastasia Mosquito Control District
  • Bettina Moser University of Florida
  • Roberto Pereira University of Florida
  • Rui-de Xue Anastasia Mosquito Control District
  • Philip Koehler University of Florida

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.32473/jfmca.v69i1.130624

Keywords:

Aedes aegypti, Apis mellifera, insecticide mixture, non-target, barrier spraying

Abstract

Four novel commercial insecticide mixtures, composed of pyrethroid and nicotinoid active ingredients, were evaluated in a series of experiments in the laboratory, semi-field and field to determine acute toxicity (LC50) against pyrethroid-susceptible (ORL1952) and resistant (Puerto Rico) strains of Aedes aegypti L., and non-target adult European honey bees, Apis mellifera L. The four products were Tandem, Temprid FX, Transport Mikron, and Crossfire. The acute toxicity data showed that pyrethroid-resistant Ae. aegypti PR exhibited decreased sensitivity to all 4 insecticide mixtures, compared to pyrethroid-susceptible Ae. aegypti ORL1952. Tandem, Temprid FX, and Transport Mikron were more toxic to Ae. aegypti ORL1952 than to A. mellifera, but Crossfire was the least toxic. Transport Mikron was also more toxic to Ae. aegypti PR than to A. mellifera. The Honey bee Tolerance Indexes, determined with LC50 data of pyrethroid-susceptible mosquitoes, demonstrated that while Transport Mikron, Tandem, and Temprid FX were more toxic to Ae. aegypti ORL1952 than to A. mellifera, Crossfire was less toxic. The honey bee Tolerance Indexes decreased substantially when calculated with LC50 data from pyrethroid- resistant mosquitoes, but honey bees remained tolerant of Transport Mikron. Notably, while the insecticide mixtures did not control the PR resistant Ae. aegypti strain when applied as residual sprays to perimeter vegetation at label rates, susceptible Ae. aegypti ORL1951 were controlled, but applications affected honeybees (A. mellifera) for up to 28 days after treatment. Temprid FX resulted in 74% and 99% mortality, in adult Ae. aegypti ORL1952 and A. mellifera, respectively, for 28 days post-treatment. Transport Mikron and Tandem residues killed Ae. aegypti ORL1952 for up to 21 days post-treatment, while the effect of Crossfire lasted only 14 days. All three insecticides killed A. mellifera for up to 28 days post-treatment but at decreased mortality rates. For operational mosquito control, these data indicate that Transport Mikron has a reasonable safety margin (~25%) when targeting susceptible mosquitoes, compared to Tandem, Temprid FX, and Crossfire. The tested insecticide formulations need to be applied in higher doses to control resistant strains of mosquitoes that may be detrimental to honey bees. The ULV data indicated that pyrethroid resistance can be overcome with the insecticide mixtures.

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Published

2022-03-28